Originating from the locality of Arbeca in the Lerida region of Les Garrigues. It is one of the best known of Spanish varieties. The arberquina olive is small in size, with a maturation period between the second week of December and the second week of January. It is highly productive and yields a good quantity of oil. They are valued because they start producing very early. It is one of the varieties with the highest percentage of oil extraction. Its oils have a colour between green and yellow, and the aroma of almonds, both fresh and fruity. Its flavour varies depending on the type of soil and climate. They are bitter and barely spicy. They are soft, light, sweet, delicate with a bitter almond flavour and the aroma of ripe fruit.
Also known as Cornezuelo, this variety originates from Mora de Toledo and is the second most cultivated variety. Its name describes the horn shape of this olive. It is a fruit that is resistant to drought, frosts and harsh cold, which indicates that, being a Mediterranean tree, it has adapted perfectly to a continental climate. Its oil has a greenish yellow colour, it has a fruity aroma and a fine almond flavour, with semi-bitter and spicy values. It provides a bitter equilibrium with a sweet start, bitter green leaves and a medium strength spice. The oil is stable due to its high content of monounsaturated fatty acids.
This is the most important variety in the world. It represents 20% of global olive groves, rising to 50% of olive groves in Spain. The olive trees of this variety have a high productivity, this being one of the reasons for the well-known intensification of their plantations. It is a type of tree that adapts to a diversity of climatic and soil conditions and it is frost tolerant; however, it has little resistance to drought and to very alkaline soils. The fruits mature from the second week of November to the third week of December. It has a high oil yield, is highly stable and has a high oleic acid content. It also has a high resistance to rancidity due to the amount of natural antioxidants it contains. Its high polyphenol content make this the most stable oil in existence. From an organoleptic point of view, these are oils of great strength, although one would have to differentiate between those from the plains and those from the mountains. The oils from the plains are full-bodied, usually bitter with a certain woody flavour and with clear spicy tones. Mountain oils tend to be softer, although with a combination of fresh and pleasant olfactory, gustatory and trigeminal sensations.
This variety is known in Portugal as “negrinha y azeitera”. It is cultivated the Alta Extremadura region where it makes up 95% of the olive groves in this area. The fruit is black in colour. When mature, it is of medium to large size with a spherical and slightly asymmetric shape. It is notable for its high pulp/stone ratio. It has a rough surface. It comes into production early. It has a low oil content, but is of good quality. It is very digestible as it contains a high level of fibre and has a high calcium and iron content. It is produced both for the table and for pressing. Its oils are full-bodied with herby aromas, spicy and bitter in the medium-to-high range and it has the aroma of ripe fruit, particularly sweet bananas.